3Our Campaigns 2Healthy Rivers & Nature 1About Healthy Rivers 0The solution for healthy rivers More water for rivers

More water for rivers

Our rivers are short of water. This may seem an odd statement but the fact is that we take out too much water for consumptive use, and this is having an effect on river health. As a rule of thumb, a river can cope with having up to one third of its water extracted and remain in reasonable health. Take more than that and trouble begins – flows drop off, wetlands dry up, water quality declines, birds and fish have trouble breeding and populations begin to decline.

The impact of our water use shows up in drier years. Most water planning is done on the basis of averages; however average years do not happen very often. Generally we either have well above average streamflows or well below.

Let’s take the year 2003/04 as an example. It is convenient because it is the first year in which comprehensive reporting on water availability became available through the publication of the State Water Report. The Report tells us that rainfall was about 80% of the long term average and streamflow across the state was 84% of long term average. It sounds as if our rivers weren’t doing too badly until we take a look at what actually happened to environmental water in individual river basins.

Water available for the environment at the basin outlet in 2003/04 compared with an average year . Red highlights indicate rivers that retained less than 66% of their flows



Basin 2003/04 streamflow (ML) Water available for environment in 2003/04 (ML) Proportion of total in 2003/04 (%) Proportion in average year (%)
Murray 4,057,210 1,175,000 29% 22%
Kiewa 647,500 650,630 100% 97%
Ovens (a) 1,609,800 1,560,220 97% 98%
Broken 270,760 125,650 46% 99%
Goulburn 2,813,340 533,150 19% 42%
Campaspe 158,750 8,220 5% 60%
Loddon 168,480 12,030 7% 74%
Avoca 33,910 9,770 29% 98%
Mallee (c)
Wimmera 107,270 2,000 2% 70%
East Gippsland 16,470 158,490 99% 100%
Snowy (b) 544,260 536,570 99% 100%
Tambo 89,180 80,100 90% 99%
Mitchell 754,260 732,720 97% 99%
Thomson 843,850 310,500 37% 68%
Latrobe 628,180 493,090 78% 82%
South Gippsland 908,210 838,750 92% 99%
Bunyip 432,460 344,190 80% 97%
Yarra 755,710 304,440 40% 65%
Maribyrnong 36,670 16,470 45% 94%
Werribee 43,650 10,970 25% 76%
Moorabool 34,270 4,850 14% 82%
Barwon 155,900 96,790 62% 84%
Corangamite 97,580 70,740 72% 99%
Otway Coast 891,610 856,670 96% 97%
Hopkins 251,050 156,100 62% 98%
Portland Coast 209,700 190,260 91% 100%
Glenelg 467,170 342,210 73% 90%
Millicent Coast (c) 180
Total 17,171,380 9,620,580 56% 71%


(a) Most water flowing out of the Ovens is captured downstream for use in South Australia

(b) Excludes water extracted in NSW by Snowy Hydro

(c) Insufficient data

This table shows that in an average year four rivers (the Murray, Goulburn, Campaspe and Yarra) have more than one third of their water extracted. In 2003/04, which was not an excessively dry year (80% of the long-term average rainfall), 14 rivers gave up more than a third of their flows, and experienced flow stress. The most severely stressed river was the Wimmera, with just 2% of its water left, followed by the Campaspe, Loddon, Goulburn and Moorabool, all of which had less than 20% of their water left in the river.

This pattern is repeated in other dry years. The details might vary from year to year but the trend remains the same – rivers have too much water taken out of them and many experience flow stress as a result. At the height of the Millenium drought in 2007 the Victorian government described the situation like this “In these years, about 95% of the flow is extracted for towns and irrigation. The drought now being faced by the Campaspe River environment is 20 times harsher than a natural drought”.   Our demand for water magnifies the effects of drought and means that some rivers experience extended periods of man-made drought. For example the Murray is deprived of the small floods that are essential to inundate the iconic Red Gum forests at Barmah, Gunbower and Hattah, leaving them ever more susceptible to natural or climate changed induced drought.

Most of the rivers highlighted in the table now have Victorian environmental entitlements which can be used to mitigate some of the impacts of reduced flows. However the entitlements may be small (e.g. the Moorabool has 2500ML, 2.5% of average streamflows), contingent on water availability (eg the Barwon, where environmental water is only delivered when river heights reach a particular level) or principally low reliability so rarely allocated (e.g. the Goulburn), or a combination of these characteristics (eg the Campaspe which has a small entitlement of low reliability) . Some rivers like the Maribyrnong have been promised an entitlement  but are yet to receive it, while others such as the Hopkins are still waiting for even a promise.

Rivers in need of a larger share of their own water:

There are many ways to help these rivers get more water – by sharing water more fairly between the river and its users, and by changing the way we use water in irrigation, in towns and in industry.